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Was this article useful. Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. The Pardee RAND Graduate School (PRGS. Maglione, Marika Booth, Elizabeth Roth, Lara Hilton, Walter Mojica, James Gagne, Shannon Rhodes, Eileen McKinnon, Sydne NewberryUse Adobe Acrobat Reader version 7.

Products that contain the herb ephedra have been promoted and used in the United States since the 1980s to increase weight loss and enhance athletic performance.

Yet despite manufacturers’ claims, little research has been done to assess whether the products are safe, and the research studies that have been done have been too small to allow any firm conclusions to be drawn. The questionable effectiveness of these products might not have raised public concern, had the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and major manufacturers of ephedracontaining products not become the targets of growing numbers of consumer complaints in the late 1990s.

Reports of adverse events, including serious side effects and even deaths, many in apparently healthy young people, began increasing during this time. Prominent among the victims have been several college and professional athletes. Thus, in recent years, several major consumer health groups have called on the FDA to ban sales of ephedra-containing products.

The FDA classifies products containing herbal ephedra as dietary supplements, which are regula ted by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). Once a dietary supplement is on the market, the FDA can restrict its use or ban sales of the product only if it can demonstrate convincingly that the product is unsafe. As complaints continued to mount, the Department of Health and Human Services called for a review of all the evidence, turning to the Southern California Evidence-Based Practice Center (SCEPC), based at RAND.

The SCEPC is one of 13 federally sponsored evidence-based practice centers nationwide that specializes in seeking answers to important health care questions through assessing and synthesizing the evidence from large numbers of research studies.

Statistically combining the findings of many similar studies increases researchers’ confidence that small apparent differences in the effects of two treatments are in fact real. We were asked to review all studies of ephedra-containing dietary supplements conducted to date, to assess whether the substance actually lives up to manufacturers’ claims and whether the supplements are safe for the general population, or whether they are in fact responsible for the adverse effects that have been attributed to them.

The herb ephedra, also known as ma huang, is a small, twiggy shrub pure ephedrine hcl to Asia, where it has a long history of medicinal use, as documented in ancient just click for source treatises from India and China. Traditional Chinese and Check this out medicine uses the branches of the herb to treat colds and wheezing and as a diuretic.

Modern European practitioners of herbal medicine use pure ephedrine hcl only to treat symptoms of respiratory diseases (such as pure ephedrine hcl asthma). The ephedrine alkaloids are stimulants (similar to, but much weaker than, amphetamines) that can increase heart rate pure ephedrine hcl blood pressure and relax bronchial tissue, easing shortness of breath.

The use of ephedra to promote weight loss and read more athletic pure ephedrine hcl began to gain is ephedrine legal in the United States in the early 1990s.

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People have used dietary supplements to enhance athletic performance for many years. Use of dietary supplements and over-the-counter pure ephedrine hcl containing stimulants like ephedrine to enhance athletic performance increased throughout the latter pure ephedrine hcl of the 20th century, perhaps in part because this web page the bans imposed on use pure ephedrine hcl amphetamines pure ephedrine hcl because of the accelerating intensity of competitive pure ephedrine hcl.

Read article assessment of the evidence was pure ephedrine hcl by a distinguished is ephedrine addictive of technical experts, both basic scientists and clinicians. Pure ephedrine hcl group included cardiologists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, pure ephedrine hcl toxicologists, as well as specialists in obesity, nutrition, and the science of pharmacognosy.

The pure ephedrine hcl expert panel recommended pure ephedrine hcl we also review studies of over-the-counter medications that contain the chemical ephedrine, presumed to be the primary active ingredient of ephedra ephedrine dose products are regulated as pharmaceuticals, not as ephedra ephedrine supplements).

In addition, many ephedracontaining supplements also include herbs that contain caffeine, and products that contain ephedrine often include caffeine. Because caffeine is believed to have effects that are similar to ephedrine, such combinations could ephedrine weight loss be more powerful /what-contains-ephedrine/ either substance alone.

Thus, we were also asked to review the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of supplements that combine ephedra and go here as well as and alcohol and ephedrine addiction products. To assess the evidence for the effectiveness of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine and ephedrine in weight loss and athletic performance, we performed an exhaustive search and review of the medical research “literature” using the well-accepted procedures of evidence-based medicine.

The literature review was conducted by our staff with the assistance of several clinical experts. Only controlled clinical trials and randomized controlled trials of effectivenessthat is, studies that satisfied a strict set of quality criteriawere included in our analysis. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) are clinical trials in which participants are assigned randomly to one of two or more treatment groups. Controlled clinical trials are those in which participants are assigned to a treatment group using a semi-random procedure (such as a participant’s date of birth, a patient identification number, or the order of enrollment).

In all, we reviewed the results of 52 clinical trials that measured the effects of ephedra or ephedrine on weight loss and athletic performance.

Most of these studies included one group of participants who were randomly chosen to receive only a placebo (an inactive dummy pill). This type of study maximizes the likelihood that any differences found between the groups taking the test supplement and those taking the placebo are real, not due to chance or bias. Studies of weight loss usually measure the weight lost over the course of the study, the weight lost per month, or the proportion of an individual’s original weight that was lost.

For each group of studies that made the same comparisons (for example, all studies that compared the effects of ephedra and herbal caffeine on weight loss with the effects of a placebo), we combined the results of all studies in that group, using a statistical technique called meta-analysis, and calculated the average total weight lost as well as the average lost per month.

Over the short term (four to six months), ephedrine, ephedrine plus caffeine, and supplements containing ephedra or ephedra plus caffeine promoted modest increases in weight loss, about two pounds per month more than the weight loss of persons taking the placebo. Products containing caffeine seemed to promote slightly more weight loss than those containing only ephedrine.

However, none of the studies lasted longer than six months, far less than the twelve months researchers consider the minimum necessary to establish the value of a weight loss product (studies that lasted less than two months were excluded from our analysis because two months is simply too short a time to assess a meaningful change in weight).

We found no studies that assessed the effects of ephedra-containing dietary supplements on athletic performance.

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The athlete feels that he will deal with his projectiles more intensely after taking ephedrine, and leaves the gym, being sure that he worked very productively. It is important to remember that this drug should not be taken for a long time, as its effect will diminish as the body becomes accustomed to the ephedrine. You also need to make a break in reception of this preparation (1-2 months) after a few weeks of use ephedrine in order to further effectively use this tool.

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Ephedra contains a racemic mixture of ephedrine (pseudoephedrine and ephedrine). Ephedrine is controlled for sale in many countries and states because it is a stimulant.

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However, in August 2006 the Tenth Circuit Ephedrine guaifenesin of Appeals overruled the lower judge and reinstated the FDA’s ban on the sale /diet-pill-with-ephedrine/ all ephedra-containing products for human consumption.

Over-the-counter sales are illegal as of Apr 6, abuse ephedrine. We are not lawyers and can not guarantee the accuracy of the information provided here. We do our best to keep this information correct and up-to-date, but laws are complex and constantly changing.

Laws may also vary from one jurisdiction to another (county, state, country, etc). Permission required before publicly reproducing Erowid info. No person, firm, corporation, partnership, association, limited liability company, or other entity shall sell or offer to sell or give away, as either a retail or wholesale promotion, a dietary supplement containing any quantity of ephedra within New York state, except as authorized by subdivision three of this section.

Any person, firm, corporation, partnership, association, limited liability company, or other entity that violates the provisions of this section by selling, offering to sell, or giving away as either a retail or wholesale promotion, a dietary supplement containing any quantity of ephedrine alkaloids shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than five hundred dollars per violation, recoverable in an action by any enforcement authority designated by any municipality or political subdivision.

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AN ENHANCED METABOLIC STATE COULD CLEARLY HASTEN THE DEPOSIT OF NEW MUSCLE MASS. THE ATHLETE IS ALSO WISE TO TAKE A BREAK (ONE TO TWO MONTHS) FROM EPHEDRINE TREATMENT AFTER SEVERAL WEEKS HAVE PAST, SO AS TO CONTINUE RECEIVING THE OPTIMAL EFFECT FROM THIS DRUG.

THE WIDELY TOUTED STACK OF EPHEDRINE (25-50MG), CAFFEINE (200MG) AND ASPIRIN (300MG) IS SHOWN TO BE EXTREMELY POTENT FOR FAT LOSS (ECA STACK). INSTEAD A BREAK OF SEVERAL WEEKS SHOULD BE TAKEN, SO THAT THIS STACK MAY ONCE AGAIN WORK AT AN OPTIMAL LEVEL. EPHEDRINE CAN PRODUCE A NUMBER OF UNWELCOME SIDE EFFECTS THAT THE USER SHOULD BE AWARE OF.

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We further processed the remaining 73 references. A flow diagram of the inclusion process is presented in Figure 1. Study flow diagram (a supplementary search shortly before publication resulted in 16 references, no RCTs or quasi-RCTs and seven additional studies to be assessed for inclusion in the Discussion at the next update).

We updated the search shortly before publication and identified no RCTs or quasi-RCTs. We did not identify any publications of RCTs or quasi-RCTs which investigated the effect of ephedrine on MG, NMG, or any of the CMSs.

However, we identified 73 references of non-randomised studies pseudoephedrine and ephedrine describe them in pure ephedrine hcl Discussion section. Five pure ephedrine hcl these are on myasthenia gravis (2 MuSK MG, 3 AChR MG) and 52 read article CMS. The exact type of myasthenia could not be determined in a further 16 publications, pure ephedrine hcl pseudo ephedrine these were older papers from before current diagnostic methods became available.

These papers pure ephedrine hcl therefore article source separately (see ‘Unknown form of myasthenia’ below). We identified no papers on the effects of ephedrine in NMG. In total, the 73 publications describe 53 different non-randomised studies: six before-and-after studies (five CMS, one ‘unknown form’), 29 case series (22 CMS, seven ‘unknown form’) and 18 case reports (five MG, 10 CMS, three ‘unknown form’).

The ongoing clinical trial that was identified was described as a cross-over RCT, but thus far results have only partially been published in the form of a case report, which we cover in this review.

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